George Washington Crile (November 11, 1864 – January 7, 1943) was a significant American surgeon. Crile is now formally recognized as the first surgeon to have succeeded in a direct blood transfusion. He also contributed to other procedures, such as neck dissection. Crile designed a small haemostatic forceps which bears his name; the Crile mosquito clamp. He also described a technique for using opioids, regional anaesthesia and general anaesthesia which is a concept known as balanced anaesthesia. He is known for co-founding the Cleveland Clinic in 1921.
1.) "George Washington Crile". The Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. "Although both parents were English Lutherans, Crile, after reading Paine, Ingersoll, and Voltaire in his college years, became a lifelong atheist, devoted to the concept of intellectual freedom."