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Jules Verne

French writer who pioneered the science fiction genre. He is best known for his novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1870), Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864), From the Earth to the Moon (1865), and Around the World in Eighty Days (1873). Many of his novels involve elements of technology that were fantastic for the day but later became commonplace. Verne is the second most translated author in the world (following Agatha Christie), and his works appear in more translations per year than those of any other writer. Verne is one writer sometimes called "The Father of Science Fiction," as are H. G. Wells and Hugo Gernsback.


1.) Peter Costello (1978). Jules Verne, Inventor of Science Fiction. Scribner. p. 34. ISBN 9780684158242. "Verne was to spend his life trying to escape from both, moving as he grew older towards anarchy and a more generalised deism."

2.) Frederick Paul Walter, ed. (2012). "Jules Verne, Ghostbuster". The Sphinx of the Ice Realm: The First Complete English Translation ; with the Full Text of The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym by Edgar Allan Poe. SUNY Press. p. 406. ISBN 9781438442112. "And despite what some have said, Verne isn't much different. His early biographers laid stress on his Roman Catholicism—his grandson (Jules-Verne, 63) called him “deistic to the core, thanks to his upbringing”—yet his novels rarely have any spiritual content other than a few token appeals to the almighty."

3.) Arthur B. Evans, ed. (2007). The Kip Brothers. Wesleyan University Press. p. 412. ISBN 9780819567048. "But Verne's oeuvre cannot be characterized as Christian — there is never a mention of Christ, and most of his Voyages extraordinaires seem to be built around a rather deist philosophy of "Aide-toi et le Ciel t'aidera" (God helps those who help themselves). As Jean Chesneaux once remarked: "Despite fairly frequent references to Providence, to the Supreme Being, he [Verne] is fundamentally a rationalist... (The Political and Social Ideas of Jules Verne [London: Thames and Hudson, 1972],82)."

4.) Kendrick Oliver (2012). To Touch the Face of God: The Sacred, the Profane, and the American Space Program, 1957–1975. JHU Press. ISBN 9781421408347. "Verne himself is best characterized as a kind of Catholic deist, deeply intrigued by the idea of God but unconvinced that he was at work in the world; and Verne was largely uninterested in the figure of Christ."

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